The wild fauna of the Serra de Tramuntana includes many endemic species, and is determined by the dual insularity that results from the existence of this mountainous area, isolated from the rest of the region, within an island. Since this is one of the areas least affected by recent human activity, species that are under severe threat in other parts of Mallorca have managed to survive here.

The harsh relief and characteristics of the vegetation have favoured a peculiar evolution in some groups. This phenomenon is most remarkable in the case of cave-dwelling invertebrates – of a total of 125 species on Mallorca, 94 are found in cavities in the Serra de Tramuntana.

In the case of vertebrates, the best representatives are found amongst the most endangered fauna, such as the osprey or the cinereous vulture. The most characteristic endemism, and a symbol of the fragility of the ecosystems, is the ferreret or Mallorcan midwife toad, a minute amphibian which only lives in temporary accumulations of water in the island’s karstic canyons.